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About Biruni Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Bīrūnī (Arabic: ابوریحان محمد بن احمد بیرونی‎), often known as Alberuni, Al Beruni or variants, (born 5 September 973 in Kath, Khwarezm (now in Uzbekistan), died 13 December 1048 in Ghazni, today's Afghanistan) was a Persian scholar and polymath of the 11th century. He was a scientist and physicist, an anthropologist and comparative sociologist, an astronomer and chemist, a critic of alchemy and astrology, an encyclopedist and historian, a geographer and traveler, a geodesist and geologist, a mathematician, a pharmacist and psychologist, an Islamic philosopher and theologian, and an Islamic scholar and teacher. He was the first Muslim scholar to study India and the Brahminical tradition, the father of geodesy, and "the first anthropologist". He was also one of the earliest leading exponents of the experimental scientific method, and was responsible for introducing the experimental method into mechanics and mineralogy, a pioneer of comparative sociology and experimental psychology, and the first to conduct elaborate experiments related to astronomical phenomena. George Sarton, the father of the history of science, described Biruni as "one of the very greatest scientists of Islam, and, all considered, one of the greatest of all times." A. I. Sabra described Biruni as "one of the great scientific minds in all history." The crater Al-Biruni on the Moon is named after him. Tashkent Technical University (formerly Tashkent Polytechnic Institute) is also named after Abu Rayhan al-Biruni and a university founded by Ahmad Shah Massoud in Kapisa is named after him.

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Iran Scientists & Academicians Ranking

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Rank Name Total
13. Ali Javan 643
14. Mostafa Chamran 618
15. Lotfali Askar-Zadeh 605
16. Morteza Motahhari 527
17. Biruni 407
18. Zakariya al-Razi 353
19. Majid Samii 303
20. Jalaleddin Kazzazi 218
21. Moradi Ghiasabadi 140

Scientists & Academicians Ranking

Show All
Rank Name Total
121. Daniel Fahrenheit 415
122. Nassim Nicholas 411
123. Ibn Battuta 408
124. Louis Pasteur 408
125. Biruni 407
126. Da Vinci 406
127. Günel Akdoğan 386
128. Zakariya al-Razi 353
129. Tadeás Hájek 333